The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine for the Prevention of Human Diseases

 Xiaohong Bi, Ph.D.

Xiaohong Bi, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Center for Proteomics and Systems Biology

(713) 486-5419

Research interests:

Optical diagnosis is an emerging field because it allows researchers and physicians to use light as therapeutic and diagnostic tools in a fast and non-invasive manner. The focus of Dr. Bi’s research is to develop various optical techniques for disease diagnosis, therapy response evaluation as well as guidance of surgery. Special interest is in the application of Raman spectroscopy in clinical medicine.

Dr. Bi’s current research is centered upon:

  • In vivo Raman spectroscopy (inflammatory bowel disease, cancer diagnosis)
  • Raman imaging for pathogenesis
  • Bone quality evaluation in metastasis and disease
  • Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy
  • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Endoscope - Representative radiographs

In addition, Dr. Bi is constantly interested in developing multifunctional imaging instrumentation for improvedhealth care and biomedical research.

Figure 1: The endoscope pictures of normal (A) and colitis colon (B). Raman spectroscopy was used to diagnose inflammatory bowel disease. The fiber optic probe was inserted through the accessory channel of the colonoscope. Tip of the probe is shown in the picture.

Figure 2: Representative radiographs from a contralateral control (A) and a prostate tumor-bearing tibia (B), and a representative cross sectional microCT image from the tibial metaphysis (C). Osteolytic lesions (yellow arrow heads) and osteoblastic lesions (red arrows) are labeled on the images. D) Mean Raman spectra from the tumor-bearing tibiae (dashed line) and the contralateral controls (solid line). Selective Raman bands were marked with biochemical assignments.


A. Hanifi, X. Bi, X. Yang, B. Kavukcuoglu, P.C. Lin, E. DiCarlo, R.G. Spencer, M.P. Bostrom, and N. Pleshko, Infrared fiber optic probe evaluation of degenerative cartilage correlates to histological grading, 2012, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(12): 2853-61

X. Bi, A. Walsh, A. Mahadevan-Jansen and A. Herline, Development of spectral markers for the discrimination of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease using Ramans spectroscopy, 2011, Disease of the Colon and Rectum, 54(1), 48-53 (2011).

X. Bi, C.A. Patil, C.C. Lynch, G.M. Pharr, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and J.S. Nyman. Raman and mechanical properties correlate at whole bone- and tissue-levels in a genetic mouse model. 2011, Journal of Biomechanics. 44: 297-303 (2011).

J.S. Nyman, C.C. Lynch, D.S. Perrien, S. Thiolloy, E.C. O'Quinn, C.A. Patil, X. Bi, G.M. Pharr, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and G.R. Mundy. Differential effects between the loss of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on structural and tissue-level properties of bone. 2011, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26(6), 1252-60 (2011)

JS Nyman, AJ Makowski, CA Patil, TP Masui, EC O'Quinn, X Bi, SA Guelcher, DP Nicollela, A Mahadevan-Jansen, Measuring Differences in Compositional Properties of Bone Tissue by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy, 2011, Calcified Tissue International, 89(2): 111-22 (2011).

X. Bi, B. Rexer, C. L. Arteaga, M. Guo, M. Li, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, Determination of HER2 amplification status in breast cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy, 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7560, 7560-30 (2010).

X. Bi, CA Patil, C. Morrissey, M. P. Roudier, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, JS Nyman, Characterization of bone quality in prostate cancer bone metastases using Raman spectroscopy, 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7458, 7458F-183 (2010)

X. Bi, JS Nyman, CA Patil, P. Masui, C. Lynch and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, Raman spectroscopy for assessment of bone quality in MMP-2 knockout mice, 2009, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7166, 71660B (2009)

X Bi, X Yang, MP Bostrom, D Bartusik, S Ramaswamy, KW Fishbein, RG Spencer, and NP Camacho, Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and MR Microscopy Studies Detect Compositional and Structural Changes in Cartilage in a Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis. 2007, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387(5): 1601-12 (2007).

R Garimella, X. Bi, NP Camacho, JB Sipe, SE Tague and HC Anderson, 2005, Characterization of mineral phase generated during matrix vesicle-mediated in vitro mineralization – A Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopic analysis. Bone, 2006 Jun; 38(6): 811-817

X. Bi, X. Yang, MP Bostrom, and NP Camacho, Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy Investigations in the Pathogenesis and Repair of Cartialge. Biochim Biophys Acta, 2006, 1758(7): 934-41.

H.C. Anderson, D. Harmey, N. P. Camacho, R. Garimella, J. B. Sipe, S. Tague, X. Bi, K. Johnson, R. Terkeltaub, and J. L. Millan, 2005, sustained osteomalacia of long bones despite major improvement in other hypophosphatasia-related mineral deficits in tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphor-diesterase 1 double-deficient mice. American Journal of Pathology, 166 (6), June 2005: 1711 – 1720.

X. Bi, G LI, SB Doty and NP Camacho, 2005, A novel method for Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopic determination of collagen orientation in tissue samples. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 2005, 13(12): 1050-1058

M.W. Kim, X. Bi, W.E. Horton, R.G. Spencer, N.P. Camacho, 2005, Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy of Tissue Engineered Cartilage Correlated to Biochemical Evaluation. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2005, 10(3), 2005: 031105.

R Garimella, X Bi, NP Camacho, JB. Sipe and HC Anderson, 2004, Primary culture of rat growth plate chondrocytes: an invitro model of growth plate histotype, matrix vesicle biogenesis and mineralization. Bone, 2004, 34(6): 961-970

JW Brauner, CR Flach, Z Xu, X Bi, R Lewis, RN McElhaney, A Gericke, R Mendelsohn, 2003, Functional group orientation in Langmuir films by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Journal of physical chemistry, 2003, 107: 7202-7211

X. Bi, C.R. Flach, Perez-Gil J., Plasencia I., Andreu D., Oliveira E., and Mendelsohn R. Secondary structure and lipid interactions of the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant SP-C in Langmuir film: IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy and surface pressure studies. Biochemistry, 41, 2002, 8385 – 8395

X. Bi, Taneva S., Keough K., Mendelsohn R., and C.R. Flach. Thermal stability and DPPC/Ca2+ interactions of pulmonary surfactant SP-A from bulk phase and monolayer IR spectroscopy. Biochemistry, 40 (45), 13659-13669, 2001

C.R. Flach, Xu Z., X. Bi, Brauner J., and Mendelsohn R. Improved IRRAS apparatus for studies of aqueous monolayer films: determination of the orientation of each chain in a fatty-acid homogeneous ceramide 2. Applied spectroscopy, 55 (8), 1060-1066, 2001


DJ Moore, M Gorcea, and X Bi, Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopy of natural moisturizing factor concentration in human corneocytes, 2009, Book Chapter in Skin Moisturization, 2nd Edition, Editors: Rawlings and Leyden, (2009)

DJ Moore and X. Bi, The application of infrared spectroscopic imaging to skin delivery: visualizing molecular localization in formulations and in skin, 2008, book chapter in Science and Applications of Skin Delivery System. Editor: Johann W. Wiechers (2008)